When I launch the Vivado installer from the Xilinx Information Center (XiC) Manage Installs section, nothing seems to happen.
When the installer is launched, you should first see a Vivado Installer splash screen followed by a User Access Control (UAC) pop up.
You must click to accept running the installer from a pop-up window in order for the Vivado install to continue.
When the Vivado installer is launched from the Xilinx Information Center (XiC) manage installs section, the UAC dialog box stays down on the toolbar.
This is easy to miss.
If the user does not see it and accept the install, the install will not continue.
The UAC box needs to be brought to the foreground and accepted to continue with the Vivado installation.